CHRONOLOGY OF DUBROVNIK
(Prepared by Josip Lucic)
A group of refugees from Epidaurum (Cavtat), joined up with a group of refugees from Salona, established a settlement on the island of Ragusium which, in Croatian, is called Dubrovnik. Geographically and politically the town was a part of Dalmatia, which at that time was under the Byzantine Empire.
The first time the name of the town was mentioned - +Epidaurum id est Ragusiumč (Epidaurum is today Ragusium) - by an anonymous cosmographer from Ravenna.
The people of Dubrovnik inhabited the tiny island entirely, and surrounded themselves with a wall. Before their arrival small communities of Illyrians and Romans had lived there. In those days Dubrovnik governed the whole of the surrounding area, which was called Astarea and stretched from Cavtat to Zaton, with outlying areas called Zupa, Sumet, Rijeka, Zaton, Gruz, and also nearby areas in the vicinity of the town. Dubrovnik also held the so-called Elafite Islands: Sipan, Lopud, Kolocep, St. Andrija, Daksa and Lokrum and a whole line of small islands in front of Cavtat: Supetar, Mrkan, Bobara and various other tiny islets. The settlers built the first cathedral.
Strong gales and bad weather and the pounding of the sea and wind caused Dubrovnik much damage. Later the walls were made stronger and firmer.
Arabs (Saracens) attacked Dubrovnik from the sea but the town bravely held out against a 15-month siege. When, at the request of the Dubrovnik inhabitants, the Byzantine Emperor sent his ships to help, the Saracens withdrew.
With their ships the Dubrovnik people transported Croatian and other Slavonic soldiers to take part in the liberation of Bari from the rule of the Saracens. This is the first known case of a combined attack by the fleets and armies of Dubrovnik and Croatia in the defence of the Adriatic. This event firmly linked the future of these two allies.
The Byzantine Emperor, Basil I, decided that Dalmatian towns should pay the Croatian and Slavonic rulers certain taxes to ensure peace on the lands surrounding the towns. Split, Trogir, Zadar, Osor and Krk paid taxes to Croatian rulers, while Dubrovnik paid the rulers from Zahumlje and Travunja.
At a meeting of the Church Council in Split it was decided that the Dubrovnik Bishopric should come under the Split Archbishopric.
For their patron saint the people of Dubrovnik chose St. Vlaho (St. Blasius). Following this, his image was impressed on seals and coins, painted on banners and carved in stone.
On his way to Croatia, the Macedonian Emperor, Samuilo, passed by Dubrovnik and on that occasion burned and devastated the town.
Dubrovnik became an Archbishopric and Metropolis. Kotor, Bar, Ulcinj and other bishoprics fell under her rule.
The people of Dubrovnik filled in the canal between the inhabited island and the mainland. The settlement spread right to the foot of the hill Srdj, and the whole area was encircled with a wall.
The Venetian Duke, Pietro II Orseolo, captured the whole of the Croatian Adriatic coast and on the little island of Majsan, near Korcula, the Dubrovnik people officially recognised the Duke's rule.
Dubrovnik freed herself from the control of Venice and returned to the protection of the Byzantine Empire.
The first written document of Dubrovnik origin - the Benedictines received the islet of Lokrum as a gift.
As a result of the segregation of the town's community into patricians and commoners, a new class, the nobles (nobiles) is mentioned for the first time.
The Dubrovnik navy together with the Byzantine navy defeated the Saracen pirates, who had been plundering along the coastline of Illyria and Corfu.
According to chronicles, fort Lovrjenac was built by the people of Dubrovnik. Mentioned for the first time in 1301, it bears a famous inscription +Non bene pro toto libertas venditur auroč (Liberty cannot be sold for all the gold in the world).
Dubrovnik, together with Croat and Norman naval forces, took part in the naval battle at Durazzo against Byzantine and Venetian fleets.
Dubrovnik recognised the sovereignty of the Normans. The assistance which they gave the Normans during the 1081-1085 war enabled them, with Norman help, to penetrate the markets of Southern Italy, Apulia and Sicily. In centuries to come this area became one of the main trading spheres for the town and a spring-board for trade and maritime business in the Mediterranean.
Pope Clement III established an Archbishopric at Bar and separated it from Dubrovnik.
Pope Innocent II abolished the metropolitanate of Bar and placed it under the rule of Dubrovnik.
Venice looked upon the area north of the line Dubrovnik-Ancona as being of vital interest and endeavoured to include not only Dubrovnik, but also the whole of the north-west part of the Adriatic under her direct control.
Dubrovnik contracted an agreement with the town of Molfetta. This agreement, which was Dubrovnik's first known trade agreement, gave both towns the freedom to trade without the payment of port fees. Henceforth Dubrovnik developed into a big maritime and trading centre on the coast; the town became a mediator for trade between inland areas and western lands overseas.
The Arabian scholar, El-Idrisi, wrote in his book +Kitab Rujarč that +Dubrovnik was the last town of Croatiač.
The Byzantine Emperor Manuel Comnenus restored the authority of Byzantium in Croatia and Dalmatia, which had been lost during the time of the Croatian King Petar Kresimir IV. In Dalmatia, a united administration was introduced. Dubrovnik, together with Split and Trogir, came under this administration. The Byzantine Empire ruled in Dalmatia until the death of Manuel Comnenus in the year 1180, and Dubrovnik alone continued to be under the Empire's rule.
Dubrovnik, together with Split, signed a trading agreement with Pisa. With this agreement Dubrovnik opened up commercial routes, enjoying the same privileges as Pisa throughout the Levant and Constantinople and the areas from Syria to Gibraltar. The agreement outlined the extent of Dubrovnik's trading interest and the breadth of her overseas trading contacts.
For a short time Venice dominated Dubrovnik, whereupon Dubrovnik accepted the protection of the Normans and in the year 1172 was freed from Venetian rule.
The first mention is made of the Dubrovnik Commune (communitas ragusina). In the course of time this medieval commune became a city state. Dubrovnik and Kotor signed an agreement for a firm and lasting peace.
Dubrovnik defeated the navy of Raska at Poljice, after the threat of invasion by sea.
Because of the defeat at Poljice, Stefan Nemanja and his brothers attacked Dubrovnik from inland. They broke into the town for a short time but were eventually driven out.
Because of the threat of an attack from the rulers of Raska, Dubrovnik again accepted the protection of the Normans.
Peace was signed with Stefan Nemanja. The new peace brought with it the privilege of free trade in the land of Raska and its rulers guaranteed the security of Dubrovnik's communal territory and borders. After this new peace the rulers of Raska were not able to threaten free Dubrovnik again.
The people of Dubrovnik and Rovinj restored peace.
Dubrovnik contracted a trade agreement with Ravenna.
Kulin Ban allowed the people of Dubrovnik the liberty of trading in Bosnia without the payment of taxes. In return they gave him whatever they thought appropriate. In the agreement the Croatian name, Dubrovnik, appeared for the first time.
The Kacic family from Omis guaranteed Dubrovnik ships and merchants free trading and passage between Vratnik and Molunt in the direction of the Italian and Croatian coasts. In return the Dubrovnik people paid a certain sum of money to the Kacic family.
The ruler of Zahumlje, Miroslav, contracted a pact of friendship with the Dubrovnik state.
The first Dubrovnik law was passed granting free circulation of some criminals and debtors during the holiday of St. Blasius.
Dubrovnik inhabitants shook off the sovereignty of the Normans. Again they returned to the Byzantine Empire. As an incentive, they received from Emperor Isaac Angelus a special Charter (hrizovulja). The Charter gave the people of Dubrovnik the right to trade freely in the Byzantine Empire and Bulgaria, and in return they were bound not to form any alliance directed against the Byzantine Empire.
According to Dubrovnik and English chronicles, the English King Richard The Lion Heart, on his return from the third Crusade, paid a visit to Dubrovnik. On that occasion, to fulfill a vow he had made after being saved from a gale, he presented the Dubrovnik people with a certain sum of money, with which they began to build a new cathedral.
Porec and Dubrovnik agreed on settling their disagreements within a 30-day period.
The Croatian herceg Andrija ruled in Zahumlje, and Dubrovnik thus directly bordered on the Kingdom of Croatia.
Dubrovnik contracted a trade agreement with the towns of Fana and Ancona.
Pope Innocent III invited the Dubrovnik people to take part in the Crusade against the Saracens.
The same Pope restored the metropolitanate at Bar and eventually separated it from Dubrovnik. The Dubrovnik Archbishop Bernard fled from Dubrovnik when the inhabitants threatened his life, considering him guilty of loosing Bar. He went to England, where he received a new bishopric.
The towns of Monopoli and Bari were bound together by trade agreements with Dubrovnik.
Dubrovnik and Termoli signed an agreement confirming their brotherhood and friendship. With this and other similar agreements Dubrovnik strengthened her trading position in central, and especially southern Italy.
During the fourth Crusade Crusaders took possession of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire ceased for a time to exist. The so-called Latin Empire (1202-1261) was formed and with the fall of Constantinople the Byzantine sovereignty over Dubrovnik ceased for ever.
The despot of Epirus Theodore I (1204-1215) gave Dubrovnik trading privileges.
Dubrovnik signed a trade agreement with Recanati, in the province of Marche, which was renewed in 1226.
They also signed agreements with the towns Molfetta and Recanati, renewed in 1229.
Dubrovnik and Kotor formed an alliance.
Dubrovnik was given privileges by Demetrius, ruler of the town Kroja, in Albania, enabling them to trade freely in his land.
Dubrovnik and Vigilia (Bisceglie) mutually abolished port duties and taxes.
Stefan Prvovencani guaranteed free trade to Dubrovnik. This was reconfirmed in 1222.
Pope Honorius III invited Dubrovnik to join in the fight against the pirates of Omis.
Dubrovnik signed a trade agreement with the towns of Termoli and Justiniana in Italy.
The Dominicans came to Dubrovnik.
The Bulgarian Tsar, Ivan Asen II, allowed Dubrovnik to trade throughout the whole of his state. This privilege, as well as those granted by other rulers, promoted the development of Dubrovnik's trading in the Balkans.
Dubrovnik contracted a trade agreement with the towns of Ferrara and Rimini.
They broke away from the control of Venice and banished the Duke from their town.
The pact with Ravenna was renewed.
Venice forced Dubrovnik once again to bow to its authority and with an agreement forced restrictions on navigation and trade. All inhabitants of the town, aged 13 years and upwards, were obliged to swear loyalty to the Duke. This oath had to be repeated every 10 years.
They were to help Venice in wars as far as the Drac-Brindisi line with the same number of sailors as Venice, and south of this line provide a 30th part of the armed forces of Venice. They also took part, together with Venice, in an action against the Omis pirates. For goods brought back from Byzantium to be sold in Venice, Dubrovnik tradesmen had to pay a 5% tax, for goods from Egypt, Tunis and barbarian countries 20%, and from the Kingdom of Sicily 2.5%. On the other hand, for goods brought from Dalmatia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia and other inland areas, they were not obliged to pay any kind of tax. Annually, they were allowed to bring four shiploads of goods into Venice, not exceeding 70 tons. For trading purposes they were only allowed to sail as far as the Bay of Corinth. To sail south of this point was possible only with the Doge's permission. It soon became obvious that Dubrovnik merchants would have to channel their trade overland away from sea routes and navigation in general.
Radoslav, the deposed King of Raska, found shelter in Dubrovnik, where the right to give asylum was frequently exercised. No threats of any kind could persuade Dubrovnik to extradite any refugee taking refuge on their territory.
Dubrovnik signed an agreement with Split and Sibenik, the Raska rulers, Radoslav and Vladislav, Duke Andrija of Hum and the Bosnian Ban, Matija Ninoslav.
The inhabitants of Omis promised not to attack Dubrovnik ships. Dubrovnik signed an agreement with Ravenna and Rimini and again broke away from Venice.
The Great and Small Councils mentioned for the first time.
The Friars Minor settled in Dubrovnik.
Venice once again dominated Dubrovnik. In addition to the old restrictions there were some new ones: Dubrovnik ships were not allowed to use ports north of Ancona and point Premantura in Istria, except when carrying perishables to Venice.
The Despot Michael II from Epirus allowed the people of Dubrovnik the privilege of free trade in the district of Epirus.
By agreement Dubrovnik settled her trade relationship with Corfu.
A trade agreement was signed by the people of Dubrovnik and Ulcinj.
The Serbian King, Stefan Uros, allowed the people of Dubrovnik free trade in his territories.
With the use of its navy and armaments, the Dubrovnik rulers forced the inhabitants of Omis to keep to the terms of the agreement (1235) in connection with the freedom of sea routes. A new and final agreement was signed by the Duke of Omis, army captains and galley commanders.
Dubrovnik and Senj signed an agreement of permanent peace and friendship.
The Commune of St. Elpidia in Romagna allowed Dubrovnik merchants to trade freely on their land.
Dubrovnik and Trogir emphasized their friendship with an agreement between the two towns.
Once again the Dubrovnik inhabitants banished the Duke from their town and cast off Venetian rule.
Venice again forced Dubrovnik to bow to her superior power and renewed the agreement of subjection from the years 1232 and 1236 and added more restrictions: should Venice become banned from trading in the Kingdom of Sicily, this would also apply to Dubrovnik.
The Consilium rogatorum (Senate) formed.
The people of Dubrovnik signed an agreement with the Bulgarian Tsar, Michael I Asen, against Uros. In return they obtained great trading concessions from the Tsar. After Uros had triumphed, the people of Dubrovnik made peace with him on satisfactory terms.
Dubrovnik and Split signed an agreement approving closer ties and mutual concessions.
The Dubrovnik people complained to Senj because they were asked to pay port fees (arboratica). They stated that all Dalmatians were freed from the payment of fees in Dalmatian ports and therefore Dubrovnik, as a Dalmatian town, should not have to pay.
For the first time the Dubrovnik +kokač is mentioned - a type of ship which was a sailing ship only. Until that time all Dubrovnik merchant vessels navigated with sails and oars.
The inhabitants of the island Lastovo chose to join the Dubrovnik Community, where they stayed until the year 1808, during which period they enjoyed a certain autonomy.
At a meeting of the townsfolk a statute was announced and Dubrovnik received her own fundamental law. The statute, by various decrees and supplements, codified juridical norms referring to the internal and external life of the community, administration, inheritance and other rights, trade, maritime law, crafts, urban regulations for the development of the town, sewage and so on. The statute was one of the oldest on the Adriatic and consisted of 8 books.
A new customs law was completed, +Liber statutorum doaneč. A large part of this law dealt with the payment and regulating of customs for the import and export of goods to the area from Vrulje near Omis, to the river Ljes in Albania. From this customs statute it is evident that the merchants of Dubrovnik traded in all kinds of textiles, wood, cattle, livestock and agricultural products, slaves, ore, specially trained hunting birds, salt, gold and gold articles.
From this year on, all fiscal books and other files from the archives were maintained. The Dubrovnik Archive became an important source of information, not only in connection with Dubrovnik's past but also of Dalmatia, Croatia, especially Bosnia and Serbia, as well as the Balkan hinterland, and also the Adriatic and Mediterranean areas. From various trade agreements, labour relations, procurations, loans, insurance, wills, diplomatic guides and so forth, the depth and breadth of Dubrovnik's entrepót trade can be seen, particularly the diplomatic skill with which they succeeded in surviving and progressing.
The people of Dubrovnik and Kotor re-established their relations in a detailed agreement.
Some notes preserved, indicating a Dubrovnik Consulate in Brskovo. From then on the Dubrovnik Consulate service developed successfully, first on the mainland and later in overseas trading centres.
The Clarist monastery at Puncela was built.
A huge fire broke out which devastated a large part of the town and outskirts, after which a detailed urbanistic plan was developed inside the walls. The main contours of this plan have been preserved until today.
The Croatian Bribir feudal lords ruled in Bosnia and Hum, and Dubrovnik again bordered directly on a Croatian state.
From this year date the surviving minutes of meetings of both Great and Small Councils and the Senate. From these records one can appreciate why and how Dubrovnik was great, rich and free.
The statute of the island of Lastovo was codified.
The building of the Franciscan Monastery was started inside the walls, the cloister of which was decorated by Mihoje of Bar. In later years the Monastery was to have its own pharmacy, the oldest in Europe in unbroken existence.
Amongst maritime documents in the Archives mention was made of the compass.
The Great Council was +closedč, i. e. they listed all present members of the Council and added a few others thereby establishing the new patrician clan (nobiles), from which were elected the members of all government bodies.
Only nobles could become Government representatives, whilst commoners were excluded. The Great Council was a legislative body and the Small Council an executive one. The Senate controlled all external and internal policy. All the members of the nobility composed the Great Council, for which they qualified at the age of twenty.
In 1348 the age limit was dropped to 18 years. Above the entrance into the Great Council Chamber the inscription is carved +Obliti privatorum publica curateč (Forget your private interests, think of the public good).
Dubrovnik acquired Ston and Peljesac for 8000 perpers and an annual payment of 500 perpers, which was paid to the Raska rulers. At the same time they paid an annual sum of 500 perpers to the Bosnian Ban. With the acquisition of Ston they became the owners of important salt works.
A book was compiled containing all reforms (Liber Omnium Reformationum) and with all laws up to that year. The book was maintained until 1410.
An official mint started to operate in which the first +dinarč (gros) was minted. The mint was situated in a building called Divona, which had previously been used as a Customs House. Until the year 1803 Dubrovnik minted her own currency. The perpera, consisting of 12 dinars, was a convertible currency.
Dubrovnik extended her territory by including under her rule the island of Mljet. That same year the island's Statute was codified.
The town port was protected with a thick steel chain which stretched from the break-water (mul) to the tower of St. Luke.
A type of hospital was built called +Domus Christič.
Dubrovnik waged a bitter war with their neighbour, the noble Nikola Altomanovic, whom they eventually defeated.
The black death struck down 110 members of the Great Council and 7,000 townsfolk. The Plague re-occurred in 1357, 1366, 1371, 1374 and 1391. To protect themselves, the people of Dubrovnik brought into effect quarantine for all ships. The building of the church of St. Vlaho (St. Blasius) was started at the same place where the old one had stood and this new church stood until 1706, when it was destroyed by fire.
A group of rich citizens, merchants etc., founded their own brotherhood, Antunini (called after St. Anthony).
Fire-arms appeared for the first time in Dubrovnik.
A community of Jews was mentioned for the first time.
Dubrovnik began to trade successfully at the port of Drijeva (called today Gabela) on the river Neretva, where they leased the customs. In that particular year they paid a lease of 6000 perpers.
The Serbian Tsar, Uros, gave to Dubrovnik the strategically important hilltops above Zupa, Sumet and Rijeka, after which its people could pursue relatively peaceful cultivation of their vineyards and fields.
Louis I, The Croatian-Hungarian King, compelled Venice through an Armistice in Zadar to withdraw from the eastern coast of the Adriatic +from half of Kvarner to Durr█sič. Dubrovnik broke away from the sovereignty of Venice. As an integral part of the Croatian-Dalmatian Kingdom and by an agreement contracted at Visegrad (Hungary), Dubrovnik became part of the Croatian-Hungarian Kingdom, where it stayed until the year 1526. Dubrovnik citizens pledged allegiance to the King and promised to pay an annual tax of 500 ducats, sing +laudeč three times a year in the cathedral in honour of the King, display his flag and coat-of-arms, entertain him with a royal escort whenever he came to the town and to join in with their navy any conflict involving any Dalmatian town. (After this the Dubrovnik navy represented the main part of the warships of the Royal Croatian-Hungarian navy.) In return the King promised to protect the town and to recognise its ownership of inland and shore areas.
Dubrovnik was allowed to trade with Venice and Serbia, even when the King was at war with them.
With this agreement Dubrovnik achieved real peace and independence and was able to penetrate new markets far inland held by Louis.
After Dubrovnik sent the Venetian Duke back to Venice, the nobles began to elect the Duke - usually called Rector - from their own ranks.
Thus the aristocracy took over the rule of the town.
Venice forbade her ships to call at Dalmatian ports to load goods. After this Dalmatian towns and Dubrovnik began to build up their own merchant fleet.
From this moment on, the city was officially represented by the +Rector and Council of Dubrovnikč.
Dubrovnik signed an agreement with Ancona.
Pope Gregory XI allowed Dubrovnik to trade with +unbelieversč (+ad partes Saracenorumč).
Dubrovnik was the first port on the east coast of the Adriatic to build a lazaretto and to introduce quarantine for ships and passengers. The first lazarettos were on the islands of Mrkan, Bobara and Supetar near Cavtat. Later the lazarettos were moved to St. Andrija and Mljet. In the year 1466 a lazaretto was built on Dance, near the town.
Dubrovnik participated in an anti-Venetian coalition, consisting of Genoa - Louis I - Dubrovnik, during the conflict over Chioggia. On that occasion friendly relations were created with Genoa, enabling ships from Dubrovnik to sail on the Tyrrhenian sea.
Dubrovnik encouraged the concluding of a treaty with Zadar and the remaining towns of Dalmatia in order to protect themselves from the Venetians, and with the intention of creating a united Dalmatian alliance.
The Bosnian King, Tvrtko, built the town Novi (Herceg Novi) in order to provide Bosnia with access to the sea and to free Bosnia from its dependance on Dubrovnik ships and merchants.
The First Dubrovnik Consul was installed in one of the sea ports at Siracusa on the island of Sicily.
Dubrovnik again emphasized the importance of organising a defensive Dalmatian alliance against the Venetians.
The Dalmatian Defense Alliance with Zadar organized by Dubrovnik.
The Sultan gave the people of Dubrovnik a letter of guarantee confirming his permission for them to trade in his country.
The construction of the city Clock Tower began.
The first textile dye-works were set up.
The Bosnian King, Ostoja, gave Dubrovnik a belt of land from Kurilo (Petrovo Selo) to Ston. In this way Dubrovnik was connected by land with its possessions on Peljesac. King Ostoja and Duke Hrvoje Vukcic Hrvatinic became Dubrovnik citizens, and were given mansions in the town valued at 1500 ducats each.
The Turkish ruler, Sarhan, guaranteed the people of Dubrovnik free trade on Turkish soil.
A plot conceived by four nobles and commoners against the Government in Dubrovnik did not succeed. The leaders of the plot were executed.
Dubrovnik was at war with King Ostoja over a border dispute. Dubrovnik was victorious.
The last 200 wooden houses in the town were demolished, and Dubrovnik became +the white townč, built of stone.
The Book of Customs Regulations was compiled.
From the Croatian-Hungarian King Sigismund, the people of Dubrovnik received the islands of Korcula, Hvar and Brac. However, due to the fierce resistance of the inhabitants of Korcula, Dubrovnik abandoned the islands in the year 1416.
Dubrovnik abolished slave trading.
In Dubrovnik Petar Pantella organised the manufacture of textiles, the first in the Balkans.
The Orlando Column was erected as a symbol of the town's autonomy.
Dubrovnik extended its borders as far as the eastern part of Konavli, having bought land from Duke Sandalj Hranic.
The Government founded the pharmacy (+Domus Christič) which exists to the present day at Placa.
The +Pacta artis vitriič setting up the first glass factory.
Blaz Jurjev paints his famous Crucifixion in St. Nicholas church in Ston.
Dubrovnik bought the western part of Konavli and Cavtat from Radoslav Pavlovic. With this acquisition it rounded off its lands and stopped extending its territories on land or sea.
Alfonso V, the King of Aragon and Sicily, took Dubrovnik merchants under his protection.
The Great Council passed a law about workers' protection in textile manufactures, the first law of this kind in Croatia.
The people of Dubrovnik acquired a new privilege from the Sultan, which allowed them to trade on the Balkans and the whole of the Turkish territory.
An orphanage, +Ospedale della misericordiač was founded, one of the first orphanages in these parts. The Chamber of Wood Carvers was also founded.
With the help of one of the town's citizens, Ivan Stojkovic, and intervention from the Croatian-Hungarian King Sigismund, Dubrovnik succeeded in obtaining great privileges from the Basle Council (+Privilegium navigationis ad partes Orientisč). This allowed them to trade in all countries ruled by unbelievers, to transport pilgrims and goods to the Holy Land, to maintain contact with Muslims and to build churches and install their own Consuls in their countries. The privilege also brought them almost exclusive rights to trade with the Turks, bringing them huge profits.
Dubrovnik opened its first public school - a kind of classical grammar school, - which still exists today.
Because of a gunpowder explosion the Rector's palace was badly damaged and rebuilt in late Gothic style.
Dubrovnik acquired its first public waterworks and fountain built by Onofrio de la Cava.
Dubrovnik demanded from the Hungaro-Croatian King Albrecht the privilege of free trade not only in Hungary, but in all its remaining lands.
Filip de Diversis wrote his well-known Description of Dubrovnik.
On the hillcrest between Zupa and Sumet the Tumba Fort was constructed. It was subsequently abandoned, but had in the meantime led to the development of the settlement Brgat Gornji.
The Government appointed its first Consul in Ancona. This particular Consulate was considered by Dubrovnik as being of utmost importance on the western coast of the Adriatic because of the threat of Venice.
Coral diving developed in the seas off the islands of Sipan, Lopud, Kolocep and Lastovo. Coral divers sometimes went to work in the Aegean and around Malta. In 1442 they were exempted from port duties and taxes.
The people of Dubrovnik received a formal Charter from the Sultan allowing them free trade on Turkish territory. In return, they paid 1000 ducats annually. In 1458 this tax was increased to 15000 ducats and eventually in 1481 stabilised at 12500 ducats.
Ivan Stojkovic (Johannes Stoyci), theologian, professor at the Universtiy of Paris, diplomat and writer, died. Stojkovic's work Tractatus de Ecclesia was published in Zagreb in 1986; his other works are still in manuscript. Born in 1390/95, he stated that he came from the Croatian city of Dubrovnik (De Ragusio quae est civitas in Charvatia).
The town's craftsmen Radoncic, Grubacevic and Utisenovic built the city bell-tower.
In a letter of protest to Barcelona the authorities of Dubrovnik wrote that they +are neither Italian nor subjected to Italy, but both by their language and position they are Dalmatians, subjects of the province of Dalmatiač.
At this time Dubrovnik had a large number of Consulates throughout the Mediterranean. In particular in the towns and ports of Ancona, Barletta, Manfredonia, Siracusa, Trani, Crotone, Bari, Pesaro, Ortona and towards the end of the century in the ports, Naples, Polignano, Termoli, Augusta, Trapani, Vieste, Catania, Molfetta, Malta, Marseille and so on.
In the diplomatic instructions to their ambassador S. Gozze it was stressed that Dubrovnik was the only free Dalmatian city ruled by the Hungarian-Croatian Crown.
The writers Djivo Gucetic and Petar Mencetic were born. The first lived until 1502 and the second until 1508.
The war with Stjepan Vukcic was the last war waged by Dubrovnik.
Sisko Mencetic was born, a citizen who marks the beginning of a splendid era in Croatian literature.
Benko Kotruljevic of Dubrovnik wrote the book On Trading and the Perfect Tradesman, the first work in the world on double-entry book-keeping.
The humanist and historian Ludovik Crijevic Tubero was born. He was to write a famous book dealing with the history of his time. He died in 1527.
All laws passed up to this year (from 1358) were recorded in the green book (Liber viridis).
From 1460 until the end of the Republic all laws were recorded in the yellow book (Liber croceus). Both statute books are used in the study of Dubrovnik jurisprudence.
Ivan Uginovic, who painted miniatures in the Dubrovnik Statute between 1430 and 1437, died.
The impressive Minceta tower was finished according to the design of Michelozzo Michelozzi and Juraj Dalmatinac. The original Minceta tower had been built in 1319.
The Great Council ratified the law according to which a noble who married a commoner lost his patrician rights.
There was a census of the town and village population in the Republic. This was certainly the first census in Croatia and one of the first ever taken in medieval Europe.
The Government demolished the manufactures in Pile, afraid of the Turks after the fall of the Bosnian state. Later attempts to set the manufactures up again were not successful.
The famous +Poet Laurateč (poeta laureatus) Ilija Crijevic, was born. He lived until 1520.
The stronghold Bokar was built according to the design of Michellozzo Michellozzi.
Town craftsmen built the
Dzore Drzic (born 1461), lyrical poet, died.
Ivan Gozze built a palate in Trsteno, today a park-arboretum.
Ivan Rabljanin forged a bell, which still hangs to-day, in the town's bell tower.
The Spanish King Ferdinand reassured the people of Dubrovnik that they could keep all the old privileges gained in the Kingdom of Naples. With the protection of the Spanish King, at that time the mightiest ruler in the West, the inhabitants of Dubrovnik were able to carry on uninterrupted trade and navigation over the whole of the middle and western Mediterranean, and to develop their trade and seafaring outside that area.
The Customs House (Divona) was built according to the design of the Dubrovnik architect Paskoje Milicevic in Gothic style with Renaissance elements.
Three major Dubrovnik painters died: Nikola Bozidarevic, who painted the triptych in the Dominican church, Annunciation and the poliptych at Dance; Vicko Lovrin, who painted the poliptych in the Franciscan church in Cavtat; Mihajlo Hamzic, author of the Baptism of Christ and a poliptych in the Dominican church.
Dubrovnik obtained a uniform customs tariff of 2% for trading in the Ottoman Empire.
Tradesmen from Persia arrived in Dubrovnik for the first time.
A shipyard was built in Gruz, and the town became an important port.
After the battle at Mohac, in which the Croatian-Hungarian King Louis II was killed, and with the end of the Croatian-Hungarian alliance, the people of Dubrovnik +via factič recognised the sovereignty of the Turkish Sultan, under whose formal protection they remained until the end of their own state. The Turkish rulers allowed Dubrovnik merchants freedom to trade in their enormous Empire, in which a unique system of insurance and customs regulations existed.
As Turkey developed and territorially expanded, so Dubrovnik's land trading grew.
Dobric Dobricevic (Boninus de Boninis), born in 1454 on the island of Lastovo, merchant and printer-publisher and one of the pioneers of European printing, died.
A group of rich Dubrovnik merchants broke away from the original brotherhood of the Antunini and founded their own brotherhood called Lazarini. Members of both groups formed an upper class of Dubrovnik commoners.
Dubrovnik had several brotherhoods and guilds, associations of craftsmen, of weavers, goldsmiths, carpenters, stonemasons, and of seamen, painters, gunners, priests, etc., founded for professional or for charity purposes.
The Dubrovnik navy took part in an attack of the Spanish King Charles V on Tunis and lost 15 of their galleons (large galleys) with all hands.
The first war of the Holy League (Spain, Venice, Austria, and the Pope) took place against Turkey. Venice attempted to involve Dubrovnik in the war on the side of the League, but without success. During the war Dubrovnik's trade grew to three or four times the size it had been in times of peace. As a neutral state, Dubrovnik traded with both sides.
The tower of Revelin was built.
The Domus Christi public state hospital was built, the first in Croatia and in the Balkans.
The Rupe Granary built.
Some traders from Dubrovnik announced that +Uskocič pirates appeared in the Adriatic. This was the first time that any mention was made of +Uskocič at sea.
A manual of law of the sea regulations as applied in Dubrovnik was compiled.
Cvijeta Zuzoric , the poetess, born. Renowned for her brilliant mind and beauty. (Died in Florence cca 1600). Several poets, Torquato Tasso among them, dedicated their poems to her.
1567Marin Drzic, the most important writer of comedies in old Croatian literature (+Dundo Maroječ, +Skupč, etc.), died.
A Committee of Five was set up for handling maritime insurance (ordo super assicuratoribus). This was one of the first statutes on maritime insurance in the Mediterranean and the world.
A sailing ship with a carrying capacity of 1100 kara (kola) was built in the Dubrovnik shipyard. One kara is equal to two thirds of today's tonnage.
With all her persuasive powers Venice tried to involve Dubrovnik in the war against Turkey in order to deprive the town of its profitable trading on the mainland. Venice proposed that soldiers from the League should occupy Dubrovnik before the Turks did. With the help of their great diplomat Frano Gundulic and the support of the Pope and the Spanish King Dubrovnik succeeded in withstanding all Spanish intrigues. Furthermore, they procured a guarantee from the members of the Holy League to recognise the unity of Dubrovnik's territory. After 1358 Venice for the first time had to give an international obligation to protect Dubrovnik territory. Dubrovnik greatly profited during the war and as a neutral state developed into a great intermediary in the trade of goods. Their trade grew 6-7 times the size it had been in times of peace, and in June 1570 the Customs Office collected 21000 ducats duty on goods trading through Dubrovnik. In the battle of Lepanto in the year 1571, the Dubrovnik navy, in accordance with its principles of neutrality, did not directly take part in that great settling of accounts between the fleets of the East and West. However, Dubrovnik ships were standing by on the side of the League.
In his book on flood and ebb tides (printed after his death) Nikola Sagroevic wrote that the Dubrovnik ships were the strongest in the world and made of the best wood.
The Government prohibited the peasants of Peljesac and some other regions from leaving their land and going to sea without permission of their masters. This was an expression of the general tendency to keep the peasants on the land.
The Dubrovnik authorities taxed their citizens' capital which was placed in foreign banks, with the intention of preventing its leakage from the state.
The poet Mavro Vetranovic (born 1483) died.
According to the report of Serafino Razzi, the largest ship from Dubrovnik had three masts, carried 1200 kola and 140 crew members (captain, officers, sailors, farriers, carpenters, cannon operators, a doctor, a clerk and others). The ship had its own carpentry, a smithy, a source of drinkable water, a winch and a pail, a pen for pigs, a rabbit hutch, a hen-house with enough chickens to feed the crew.
On the top of the masts baskets were fitted. The heavy sails were lifted with the help of hand winches.
For such large ships people used to say +if it can complete one or two voyages it can pay back all the money invested.č Salt was one of the most important articles exported from Dubrovnik and at the same time a profitable source of income. In this particular year in the salt works of Ston 3864 tons of salt was produced.
A large salt store house built in Mali Ston.
The writer of comedies Nikola Naljeskovic died.
Dubrovnik ships joined the +Invincible Armadač of the Spanish King Philip II in a raid on England, hoping to be victorious and in this way to extend their trade across the Atlantic.
When the attempt failed, England began to cause problems for the people of Dubrovnik in retaliation for their unfriendly attitude, and eventually pushed all Dubrovnik traders off the island.
Frano Gundulic, jurist and diplomat (born 1539), died.
The +Rupeč granary was completed. The Republic conscientiously concerned itself to ensure that the inhabitants had always enough food.
A warehouse (+skelač) was built in Split through which passed a large proportion of the trade between Venice and Constantinople, and as far afield as Persia and India.
Because of this +skelač Dubrovnik trade suffered huge losses. The caravans passed by Dubrovnik, which until then had been the main intermediary for trade between Turkey and the West, and re-routed to Split.
In Lucca (Italy) Serafino Razzi published the first printed history of Dubrovnik Storia di Raugia.
Dubrovnik owned more ships than ever before. The Merchant Navy consisted of 170-200 large ships, amongst which were 57 carracks, 72 galleons, and 32 +navesč (1584). Apart from these ships, which sailed all over the world, Dubrovnik had a large number of smaller coastal vessels for navigation and seafaring within the Adriatic. The whole of the Merchant Navy had in those days a carrying capacity of 36,000 kola. These ships were manned by around 5,000 sailors. The annual net profit to the ship owners amounted to 180,000-200,000 ducats, whilst the crews earned 100,000 ducats.
At the same time, in the 16th century, Dubrovnik's trade reached its highest point. Dubrovnik had 50 Consulates in the Mediterranean; 36 in Italy, 3 in French ports, 4 in Spanish ports, 6 in Turkish ports and one on Malta. A manual of Penal law was codified in 1674.
Didak Pir (Isaiah Koen), Humanist poet, died. Born in 1527 in Portugal, he lived and wrote his poetry in Dubrovnik.
Orsat Crijevic, a Dubrovnik envoy at the Court in Madrid, announced that the previous year many Dubrovnik citizens had been to the West Indies (America). The Spanish King, Philip III, reaffirmed all Dubrovnik's old privileges given by Spanish Kings in the 15th and 16th centuries.
In Pesaro (Italy) Dubrovnik-born Mavro Orbini published his book The History of the Slavic Peoples (+Regno degli Slavič).
On the island of Lastovo a rebellion broke out against the Dubrovnik Government because of restrictions imposed on the island's autonomy. The rebellion was encouraged by the Venetians. However, Dubrovnik subdued the uprising and reasserted its authority on the island.
The Jesuit Bartol Kasic wrote the first grammar of the Croatian language, Institutiones linguae illyricae.
According to the records of the Dubrovnik historian Jakov Lukarevic, Dubrovnik merchants traded in the Portuguese port Goa (West Indies).
Miho Pracat, ship-owner and merchant from the island of Lopud, died. His immense fortune was left to the town's charities. In the year 1633 the Republic erected a bronze bust in his memory in the courtyard of the Duke's Palace. He was the only citizen of Dubrovnik, and a commoner at that, to whom a monument was erected.Dinko Ranjina, a poet born in 1536, who wrote Pjesni razlike, died.
Vice Bune, (born 1559) died. He had served the Spanish Kings Philip II and Philip III.
According to unconfirmed reports he had been the King's Governor in Mexico.
The philosopher and scholar Niksa Gucetic (born 1549) died. In his works he expressed the aspirations of Renaissance Europe.
The poet Dominko Zlataric died. He was known for his statement: +Illyria is my country, Dalmatia my home, Slavonia my kin, and Croatia my familyč.
Historian Jakov Lukarevic (Luccari), born in 1551, died. Major work +Copiso ristretti degli annali di Ragusač.
Marin Getaldic, mathematician and astronomer (born 1568), died. He was well known for his works on mathematical analysis and construction De resolutione et compositione mathematica (published after his death in 1630).
One of the greatest Croatian authors of the 17th century (born 1589) Ivan (Djivo) Gundulic, died. (Osman, Dubravka etc.).
Dzono Palmotic, the author of melodramas and the drama Pavlimir (born 1607), died.
Dzivo Bunic, born 1591, died. A writer of anacreontic poetry and the poem Mandaljena pokornica (Repentant Magdalene).
The Jesuits took over the administration of the Dubrovnik Grammar School and began other activities.
For the first time the government allowed some commoner families of Dubrovnik or noble foreigners to enter the ranks of the Dubrovnik nobiles which were dying out.
Vladislav Mencetic (born in 1617) died. Composed Trublja Slovinska (The Slav Fanfare), which he dedicated to Croatian Ban Petar Zrinski.
A terrible earthquake demolished Dubrovnik. What was not flattened by the earthquake was consumed by fire.
Over 4,000 citizens were left under the ruins. Between 2,000 and 3,000 people survived. Buildings, manuscripts, objects of art and other priceless material and cultural articles perished.
Dubrovnik recovered thanks to the trade which was still carried on by the ships anchored in foreign ports and the generosity of people from Dubrovnik all over the world, who organised help for the stricken town.
Due to the fact that a number of aristocrats were killed and their family names died with them, the Great Council accepted amongst its aristocracy 10 of the town's families, mainly from the Antunini Fraternity. In the year 1673 another five families were accepted amongst the aristocracy.
During the War over Crete Dubrovnik succeeded in diverting trade from Split to their own town.
Nikolica Bunic, son of the poet Dzivo Bunic, preferred to die in the Turkish dungeons rather than sign an agreement which would have been harmful to his town.
An inscription was put up by the Dubrovnik people, the only public recognition ever made to one of their aristocrats.
After the catastrophic earthquake Dubrovnik re-established trade with Turkey.
Jaketa Palmotic (born 1623), poet (Dubrovnik ponovljen) and diplomat, died. He became famous for saving the interests of his town after the threats made by Turkey following the earthquake.
Stjepan Gradic (born 1613) died. Polyhistorian and poet Latinist, Envoy-Executive for the Dubrovnik Republic in Rome, Chief Librarian of the Vatican Library. After the earthquake in 1667 he organised help in Europe for his devastated town.
The +Long Warč was in process. Venice captured a part of Dubrovnik's inland area and approached its borders. They presented the threat of completely surrounding and cutting off Dubrovnik's trade inland. In view of this danger, expecting the defeat of the Turks by Vienna in 1684 and hoping that the Austrian Army would capture Bosnia and Hercegovina, Dubrovnik sent emissaries to the Austrian Emperor, Leopold, in Vienna.
In 1684 the emissaries renewed an agreement contracted in Visegrad in the year 1358 and accepted the sovereignty of the Austrian Emperor over Dubrovnik as a Croatian-Hungarian King, with an annual tax of 500 ducats. At the same time Dubrovnik continued to recognise the sovereignty of Turkey; which was nothing unusual in those days. After this even greater opportunities opened up for Dubrovnik ships in ports all along the Croatian coast, in which they anchored frequently.
The first permanent diplomatic representative for Dubrovnik was installed in Rome.
Dubrovnik opened a Consulate in Rijeka and the first Consul appointed was Petar Svilokos.
+Akademija ispraznijehč was founded, along the same lines as the Rome Arcadia, where Dubrovnik's literati gathered.
Armistice at Srijemski Karlovci. As one of the victors, Venice wanted to keep the captured territory around Dubrovnik's borders so as to cut off and destroy Dubrovnik's trade. Dubrovnik's diplomacy succeeded in separating their own and the Venetian territories on the eastern coast of the Adriatic with the arrangement that Turkey had a route to the sea via Neum and Sutorina. In this way the citizens of Dubrovnik avoided having a common border with Venice. Later attempts by Venice to change the border were unsuccessful.
Dubrovnik succeeded in arranging with the Turks to send a tax of 12,500 ducats every third year in advance, and in this way in fact reduced the tax.
Djuro Baglivi (born 1668) died, a university professor and one of the most famous physicians of his time.
A portal was added to the building of the Main Guard, between the City Clock Tower and Onofrio's Small Fountain.
Replacing Dubrovnik's cathedral, which was badly damaged in the earthquake, a new cathedral was erected in the style of Roman baroque. This cathedral still stands.
The baroque church of St. Vlaho was built. The church still stands.
It was decreed that the serfs had to work for their masters 75 days a year.
This was a period of great effort on the part of Venice to paralyze the trade of Dubrovnik on the mainland.
The Jesuit church was completed (architect A. Pozzo). Close by the church stands the famous +Collegium ragusinumč (1735), where all well-known Dubrovnik citizens were educated. Also nearby is the splendid +Skalinatač (1738). All three combine to create one of the most interesting Baroque settings in Dalmatia.
Dzono Rastic (born 1669 or 1671) died. He was a historian and the best writer of chronicles in Dubrovnik (Chroniche di Ragusa).
Ignjat Djurdjevic (born 1675) died, a writer of religious and love poems.
Dubrovnik opened a Consulate in Trieste, bent upon preserving its trade positions in the Adriatic.
Dubrovnik's continental trade slackened, but its sea trade was renewed thanks to its neutrality. In that year Dubrovnik had nearly 150 ships, on which sailed about 2200 sailors.
1759Dubrovnik renewed her trade connections with England, which had been broken off after 1588. Saro Crijevic, historian (born 1686), died. His broad and comprehensive work on the history of Dubrovnik's churches is still in manuscript, whilst his manuscript about Dubrovnik's men of literature was printed in 1975.
The conflict between the +oldč and +newč nobility (the latter were those co-opted into the ranks after the earthquake) resulted in reforms of election rights for the state administration in favour of the +newcomersč.
Dubrovnik wished to open a Consulate in Zagreb, but this was prevented by Austria.
Dubrovnik attempted to smooth over a disagreement with the Russians resulting from the capture of Dubrovnik ships in the Mediterranean.
Dubrovnik and France signed a trade agreement in which Dubrovnik was treated as the +Republic of Dubrovnikč. This agreement was not favourable for Dubrovnik.
Sebastijan Slade-Dolci, a biographer of famous Dubrovnik citizens (born 1699), died.
Dubrovnik ships successfully sailed not only in the Mediterranean but also in the Black Sea. They appeared as well in American Atlantic ports such as New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and others.
The Dubrovnik Government did not answer the proposition put forward by their diplomatic representative in Paris, Frano Favi, that they establish diplomatic relations with the USA, although the Americans agreed to allow Dubrovnik ships free passage in their ports.
Rugjer Boskovic (born 1711) died. He was one of the greatest Croatian scientists, mathematician, astronomer, and physicist. His most significant work was Philosophiae naturalis theoria (1758). With his reputation, fame and connections he was often able to help his Republic.
Luka Sorkocevic died, a composer whose works are still performed today.
Rajmond Kunic (born 1719), Latinist of world repute, died. A second edition of the Dubrovnik regulations of navigation was published (Regolamenti della repubblica di Ragusa per la navigazione nazionale) which reflected Dubrovnik's ingenuity in the field of maritime laws. The bases for this were given in Dubrovnik's statutes on navigation for the years 1745 and 1781.
In this century the Dubrovnik navy revived and became stronger after their decline in the 17th century. Towards the end of the 18th century Dubrovnik had at its disposal 300 large ships of various types.
An uprising flared up in Konavli against the Dubrovnik Government because of the introduction of forced salt selling. The uprising was a direct result and reflection of new social conditions in Europe with the ending of feudalism under the impact of the French Revolution.
The number of days the serfs were obliged to work for their landlords was raised to 90.
Dubrovnik had a very good network of Consulates and Consular establishments. Her Consular representatives were to be found in over 80 towns and ports. This imposing number not only shows the large growth of Dubrovnik's overseas trading and navigation, but also is a witness to the fact that many larger and stronger European states did not have available such a powerful and well developed network of Consulates.
Benedikt Stay-Stojkovic (born 1714), well-known Latinist, died.
Captain Ivan Kaznacic (1758-1850), well-known cartographer, diplomat and author from Slano, was appointed Dubrovnik Consul in Genoa.
The writer Anica Boskovic, Rudjer Boskovic's sister (born in 1714), died.
The French General Lauriston occupied Dubrovnik. Dubrovnik's Government developed important diplomatic activities in Austria, Turkey, France and Russia, so as to preserve its freedom and status as a Republic.
The French imposed an enormous war tribute on Dubrovnik. Napoleon's blockade of England contributed to the breakdown of the Dubrovnik Merchant Navy.
On the decision of Marshal Marmont the Dubrovnik Republic was abolished. All her territories were placed under the French rule in Dalmatia. Marshal Marmont became +Duke of Dubrovnikč (Duc de Raguse).
The Senate acknowledged the decision but did not agree with it. Since then Dubrovnik has been, administratively and politically, a part of Dalmatia, i. e. Croatia.
Dubrovnik became part of the Illyrian Provinces whose seat was Ljubljana up to 1813, and Trieste after that.
The Dubrovnik region became a separate civil province within Illyrian Provinces.
The British occupied the islands of Sipan, Lopud, Kolocep as well as Cavtat, and retained them up to 1814.
Led by general Todor Milutinovic, the Austrian army marched into Dubrovnik. With them came the British army and the local insurgents against the French occupation.
At the Congress of Vienna, Dubrovnik was integrated into the Kingdom of Dalmatia and annexed to Austria (which later became Austria-Hungary), where it remained up to 1918. The British Navy left the Dubrovnik archipelago.
The poet-Latinist Djuro Resti (born 1751) died. He was a translator from Greek into Latin. He wrote elegies, epistles and epigrams, and was well-known for his biting satires.
Joakim Stulli (born 1729) died. He was a lexicographer, the author of an encyclopedic dictionary in three parts: Lexicon italico-illyricum (1801); Illyric-Italian-Latin Dictionary (1806) (Rjecoslozje iliricko-italijansko-latinsko) (1806) and Vocabolario italiano-illirico-latino (1810).
Djuro Feric (born 1739) died. Feric was a poet and translator who also collected folk literature: poems, fables, proverbs and was thus in fact a forerunner of romanticism. Notable among his work is a Description of the Dubrovnik Coast (Opis dubrovacke obale, 1803).
Brno (Bernard) Zamanja (born 1735) died. He was a Greek scholar, a Latinist poet and member of the Arcadia Academy. He translated the Odyssey from Greek into Latin and composed two long poems, Echo (1764) and Navis aeria (1768).
Marko Bruerovic (BruÓre Descrivaux, born 1770) died. A poet and consul, he wrote proverbs, some poetry and comedies.
Luka Stulli (born 1772), physician, playwright and translator, died. Besides medical texts he also wrote poems and comedies.
The Dubrovnik Archdiocese (founded in the late 10th century) was abolished and became a diocese.
Djuro Hidza (born 1752) physician, poet and translator, died. He translated the entire works of Horace and Virgil.
Maria Francesco Appendini (born 1768), linguist and historian, died. He was the author of the well-known work Notizie istorico-critiche sulle antichitË, storia e letteratura dei Ragusei (1802).
Vlaho Stulli (born 1768), comediographer, author of Kate the Corporal's Wife, died.
The Croatian Assembly (Sabor) published the People's Requests in which they requested among other things the abolition of serfdom and the unification of Dalmatia and Croatia. The Dubrovnik Municipality was the most outspoken of all the Dalmatian communes in its support for unification with Croatia. A letter was sent from Dubrovnik to Zagreb with pledges to work for this idea.
Dubrovnik continued to lead the Dalmatian cities in the struggle for unification. A large-scale campaign was launched in the Dubrovnik paper L'Avvenire (The Future) based on a clearly formulated programme: the federal system for the Habsburg territories, the inclusion of Dalmatia into Croatia and the Slavic brotherhood.
This year appeared the first issue of the almanac Dubrovnik, Flower of the National Literature (Dubrovnik, cvijet narodnog knjizevstva), in which Petar Preradovic published his noted poem To Dubrovnik. This and other literary and journalistic texts, which continued to be published, contributed to the awakening of the national consciousness reflected in efforts to introduce the Croatian language into schools and offices, and to promote Croatian books. The Emperor Franz Joseph brought the so-called Imposed Constitution which prohibited the unification of Dalmatia and Croatia and also any further political activity with this end in view. The political struggle of Dubrovnik to be united with Croatia, which was intense throughout 1848 and 1849, did not succeed at that time.
Founding of the Nautical Academy.
The Emperor proclaimed a new constitution after the collapse of Bach's Absolutism in 1859. In the more favourable political situation which ensued, the struggle for the unification of Dalmatia with Croatia was resumed.
Meeting of the first Dalmatian Assembly, with representatives from Dubrovnik.
Representatives of Kotor came to Dubrovnik to join the struggle for unification with Croatia. The citizens of Dubrovnik gave them a festive welcome, flying Croatian flags from the ramparts, and exhibiting the slogan: +Dubrovnik with Kotorč. The Kotorans elected a delegation to go to Vienna; Dubrovnik nominated Niko Pucic.
Niko Pucic went to Vienna to demand not only the unification of Dalmatia with Croatia, but also the unification of all Croatian territories under one common Assembly.
The People's Library (Narodna stionica) was organized with the aim of promoting education and social life. The old town hall, which had been burnt down in a fire in 1816, was pulled down.
Production was started in newly built oil, soap and pasta factories.
By the end of the century, and particularly by the outbreak of the First World War, production began in a series of new factories, and manufactures such as ceramic ware, candles, tobacco; new power plants were also built.
Bundic's theatre was opened - which remains the theatre of Dubrovnik today.
The building of the new town hall in neo-renaissance style.
The Dubrovnik Municipality was one of the first in Dalmatia where the People's Party (Narodna stranka) seized the majority. They strove to integrate Dubrovnik and Dalmatia with Croatia and to introduce Croatian into schools and offices as the official language.
The Dubrovnik Museum was opened.
The Worker's Society of Dubrovnik was founded.
Antun Kaznacic (born 1784) died. He was a poet, follower of the Illyrian movement and promoter of its ideas.
+The Dubrovnik Twelfthč - one of the largest ships in the Adriatic at the time - was launched. The Emperor Franz Joseph attended the launching ceremony.
The Teacher's Training School for women opened.
Founding of the review Slovinac (Slav), dedicated mainly to literature and the arts. Its editor was Luko Zore. It was discontinued in 1884.
Dubrovnik purchased its first steamer, the +Dubrovnikč. From now on steamboats began to replace sailing ships, which opened a new era in Dubrovnik shipping and navigation.
Medo Pucic (born 1821), poet, journalist and politician, died. He also published some documents from the Dubrovnik Archives.
Death of politician Niko Pucic (born 1820). He was a member of the Croatian Assembly and champion of the unification of Dalmatia (particularly Dubrovnik) with Croatia. He was the editor of the review Dubrovnik and founder of the review Slovinac. Death of Ivan August Kaznacic (born 1817) publicist and promoter of the Illyrian cause. He edited the review Zora dalmatinska (Dalmatian Dawn) and founded the Dubrovnik review L'Avvenire (The Future).
Juraj Pulic (born 1816), politician and educator, died.
He was also one of the leaders of the Dalmatian branch of the People's Party.
Founding of the Agricultural School.
Founding of the shipping company Dubrovacka parobrodska plovidba, followed by Unione in 1891, Naprijed in 1894, etc.
Death of Mato Vodopic (born 1816), who wrote poems for some special occasions, and was a storyteller and collector of folk ballads. Most notable among the works of Vodopic, who was the bishop of Dubrovnik, are Mare from Konavli and Poor Jele.
Pasko Antun Kazali (born 1815), poet and translator, died.
Founding of the Croatian Workers' Cooperative.
Death of Miho Klaic (born 1829), politician, member of the Dalmatian Assembly and one of the leaders of the People's Party in their struggle for the unification of Dalmatia with Croatia.
In Dubrovnik the socialists began functioning as an independent political party.
An important incentive to modern tourist trade was the building of the Hotel Imperial, followed by other luxury hotels.
The electrification of Dubrovnik begun.
Dubrovnik gained a railway connection (disconnected in 1975).
Founding of Srdj, a review for literature and science (discontinued in 1908).
Matija Ban (born 1818) died. He wrote poems, plays, including tragedies.
The Ston salt works produced 2,360 tons of salt - the highest output in this period.
The Rijeka Resolution was proclaimed. It supported the struggle of the Hungarians for their independence provided Dalmatia be unified with Croatia and Slavonia, and the Croatian people granted an independent political, cultural, financial and general economic development. Pero Cingrija was the representative of Dubrovnik on this board.
Death of Luko Zore (born 1846), philologist and Slavist who founded the literary journal Slovinac.
Death of Baldo Bogisic (born 1843), writer of legal texts, university professor and minister of state. He bequeathed a rich library to his native Cavtat.
The first tramline opened and continued to circulate up to 1970.
Death of Pero Budmani (born 1835), philologist, member of the Academy and translator. He was the editor of the Dictionary of the Yugoslav Academy. Various political parties were active in Dubrovnik up to World War I: the Croatian party (born after the fusion of the People's Party and the Party of the Right in 1905) was the strongest party in the city. The other parties were the Party of Right, the Autonomists' Party, the Social Democrats and the Serbian Party.
A number of powerful banks developed in that period Slavenska bankovna skupina (The Slavic Banking Group) resulting from the fusion of Hrvatska vjeresijska banka, Prva hrvatska stedionica in Zagreb and some Czech banks; Dubrovacka trgovacka banka; Srpska centralna banka (for the coastal regions); Jadranska banka; Hrvatska pucka stedionica, and a few smaller savings banks.
In accordance with the Treaty of London a large part of Dalmatia, including Dubrovnik, was to be given to Italy as a recompense for fighting on the side of the Allies in the war, but this was prevented by the politician Frano Supilo.
The political leader Frano Supilo (born 1870) died. He was the ideologue of the +New Course Policyč and formulator of the principles contained in the Rijeka Resolution (1905). He was one of the founders of the Yugoslav Committee in World War I.
The Croatian Assembly severed its state and legal ties with Hungary and Austria. The state of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs was created. Its seat was Zagreb.
A committee of the People's Council was active in Dubrovnik, headed by Pero Cingrija.
The unification into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes under the Karadjordjevic dynasty with Belgrade as capital city.
Dubrovnik shared the fate of Dalmatia and Croatia in the new community of Yugoslav nations.
Elections for the Constituent Assembly. In the Dubrovnik district the following parties took part: the Communist party (which obtained the majority of the votes); the Croatian Popular Party; the Association of Non-Party Members; the People's Radical Party; the Agricultural Party; the Democratic Party.
The State Archives were organized as an independent institution. Death of Celestin Medovic (born 1859), painter of pomp, theatrical pathos and artificiality.
Death of Pero Cingrija (born 1837), politician and one of the leaders of the People's Party in Dalmatia. It was thanks to his efforts that the People's Party and the Party of Right were fused into one Croatian Party in 1905.
Dubrovnik became the seat of administrative region (oblast) up to 1929.
The painter Vlaho Bukovac (born 1844) died. He was the central figure of Croatian impressionist painting at the turn of the century.
The following parties participated in the elections for the Yugoslav Assembly: the Croatian Republican Peasant Party; the National Bloc; Davidovic's Bloc; the Croatian Popular Party; the Republican League of Workers and Peasants; the Agricultural Party; the Croatian Party of Right.
Founding of the Dubrovnik Philharmonic.
Beginning with this year, the port of Gruz steadily kept second place in the sea trade of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia up to the outbreak of World War II.
The following political parties in Dubrovnik fought in the elections for the Constituency: the Croatian Peasant Party; the Croatian Bloc; the People's Radical Party; the Democratic Party; the Independent Democratic Party; the Croatian Popular Party; the Croatian League of Workers and Peasants.
The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which was administratively divided into 8 large districts (banovine) and three cities with special administrations: Belgrade, Zemun and Pancevo.
Dubrovnik became part of the Zetska banovina and remained thus up to 1939. This was an attempt to tie the district of Dubrovnik administratively to Montenegro.
The writer Ivo Vojnovic (born 1857) died. His most notable plays were the Dubrovnik Trilogy and Equinox. He was a forerunner of the Moderna movement.
Death of Josip Bersa (born 1826), writer and archeologist. He wrote a well-known book on Dubrovnik after the fall of the Republic (Dubrovacke slike i prilike).
The 11th Congress of the International PEN Club was held in Dubrovnik.
Death of Ivo Prodan (born 1852), politician, member of the Dalmatian Assembly and one of the leaders of the Party of Right in Dalmatia.
The following parties nominated candidates at the elections for the Assembly: the United Opposition (in which the Croatian Peasant Party held the strongest position); the Yugoslav National Party; the Yugoslav Socialist Party and Yugoslav National Movement Zbor.
Death of Ignjat Job (born 1895), painter, the most original figure in Croatian art of the first half of the twentieth century.
Bishop Frano Ucellini-Tice (born on Lopud 1847) died. The first among the Croats and south Slavs to translate the whole of Dante's La Divina Commedia.
In the period up to World War II Dubrovnik had: several pasta factories (Sez, Roland, Kulusic); the Dubravka factory of paints, varnishes and ship furnishings; an ice factory; a winery (Kolic); a factory of tin containers attached to the storage of oil, petroleum and mineral oils of the Anglo-Yugoslav joint stock company; sardine factories (in Trpanj and Sipan); the Ston salt works (which in 1935 produced 2830 tons of salt), a distillery of rosemary, bay leaves, wormwood and heather; a firm collecting and purchasing tobacco from farmers; a liquer factory; a candle manufacturers; an electric power plant; a small soap factory and several smaller manufacturers.
The Dubrovnik shipping companies in this period were: Dubrovacka parobrodarska plovidba; Prvo dalmatinsko trgovacko drustvo; Slobodna plovidba; Plovidba +Radč; Jugolevant and several other smaller shipping companies.
The following banks were active: Prva hrvatska stedionica (branch office); Gradska stedionica; Srpska banka (branch office); Stedionica banovine Hrvatske, Narodna banka Jugoslavije (branch office) and other smaller banks.
In Dubrovnik (without surroundings) there were 48 hotels, inns and pensions. In this year the Dubrovnik City Commune had 58,050 tourists (40,970 of which were foreigners) and 473,511 tourist days. The following states had consulates in Dubrovnik: Albania, Belgium, Great Britain, Czechoslovakia, Chile, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy and Spain.
A Dubrovnik Tourist Archive was founded charged with collecting, keeping and studying all aspects of the tourist trade in the region.
The Banovina of Croatia was formed, and included Dubrovnik.
The city of Dubrovnik had a population of 18,765. The entire district, with the city, had 50,201 inhabitants.
The army of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia capitulated. Dubrovnik became part of the so-called Independent State of Croatia. However, it was in fact under the occupation of the Italian army which entered the city on April 17.
In August the Committee for People's Aid was established to resist the occupying forces. In December a local Committee for the People's Liberation began recruiting fighters for the Partisan units.
The philologist Milan Resetar (born 1860) died. He studied the Croatian and Serbian languages and dialects. Author of Dubrovnik Numismatics (1924-1925).
After the capitulation of Italy on September 3, Dubrovnik was occupied by German forces (Sept. 10).
The second AVNOJ (Anti-Fascist Council for the Liberation of Yugoslavia) Conference decided among other things, that the new Yugoslavia would be a federal state, that the question of the Monarchy would be decided after the war ended, and that Croatia and Slovenia and thereby Yugoslavia would demand the restitution of all territories ceded to Italy by the Rapallo treaty, as well as those later occupied by Italy.
The painter Gabro Rajcevic (born 1912) died.
The units of the 29th Division and the Second Dalmatian Brigade of the People's Liberation Army entered Dubrovnik on October 18.
A hundred people, civilians of various professions, priests and monks among them, were shot without trial. Most of them were executed at the island of Daksa, other in the greater Dubrovnik area.
2,983 fighters from the Dubrovnik region participated in the People's War of Liberation of which 500 were killed. Four hundred inhabitants of the region died as victims of Fascist terror. Participants in the People's War of Liberation numbered 5,851.
The Dubrovnik Radio Station began operating.
Death of Marko Murat (born 1864), plein air and impressionist painter.
Elections for the Constituent Assembly. The People's Front list obtained the absolute majority vote. Proclaiming of the Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia, a term replacing the original name of Democratic Federative Yugoslavia. As part of the People's Republic of Croatia, Dubrovnik was part of this Federation.
The Marin Drzic Theatre was founded. It was first called District Theatre of People's Liberation, then People's National Theatre, finally receiving the name of its great comediographer.
Opening of the Art Gallery.
Death of Albert Haller (born 1883) literary critic and aesthetic scholar, author of Experience of Beauty and Modern Literature of Dubrovnik.
Passing of the Nationalization Act and the Agrarian Reform and Colonization Act. In Dubrovnik private tourist trade and transport firms passed into the hands of the state. (Smaller tourist establishments and services remained in private hands).
Founding of the Municipal Orchestra.
Inauguration of the Historical Institute of the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts (now Institute for Historical Research).
The Dubrovnik Summer Festival was inaugurated. Many buildings and areas in the city were used as stages for festival performances. The Summer Festival has remained an important and varied manifestation, in which Croatian, Yugoslav and foreign artists and musicians take part, but in which an attempt is made to retain a Dubrovnik touch.
Founding of the Research Library (Naucna biblioteka).
Work was begun in the Biological Institute of the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts.
Dubrovnik was host of the IX Chess Olympiad.
Founding of the Pomorsko transportno poduzece Dubrovnik, later integrated into Atlantska plovidba (Atlantic Shipping Company).
Proclamation of the institutional act regarding the basis of the social and state system which was to rest on the principle of self-management.
Founding of Dubrovnik, a review for literature, art, science and culture.
Founding of Atlantska plovidba, a powerful impulse for the economic development of Dubrovnik.
Founding of the Nautical Academy which, in 1986 became the Nautical College, a member of the University.
Founding of the Academy of Education, which was closed in 1974.
A modern airport was opened in Dubrovnik.
Yugoslavia became the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a federal state of +freely associated and equal nationsč. Dubrovnik was part of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, which was one of the Yugoslav socialist republics.
Opening of the Institute of the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts for research in corrosion and desalination.
Death of Antun Masle (born 1919), a painter of melancholy and introversion.
Founding of the Music Academy, a part of the Zagreb Academy of Music.
1970Founding of the Inter-university Centre for Postgraduate Studies, which began functioning in 1974.
Founding of the Faculty (College) of Tourism and Foreign Trade.
Death of Ivo Dulcic (born 1916), a painter of Mediterranean colouring and inspiration. He painted murals, stained glass, portraits etc.
Dubrovnik was awarded the Golden Medal of Europe for work in preserving the cultural and artistic monuments of the past. Opening of the large tourist complex Babin Kuk - Dubrava provided with all recreational facilities.
On April 15 Dubrovnik was struck by an earthquake of 6.2 MCS scale, which damaged many buildings and cultural-historical monuments in the city and its surroundings. By a decision of UNESCO, Dubrovnik was put on the list of the world's cultural heritage.
Discovery of foundations of Dubrovnik's original cathedral from the VII/VIII century.
According to the new census, the Commune of Dubrovnik had 66,131 inhabitants living in 155 settlements.
Dubrovnik was host to 354,000 tourists, with 1,383,000 tourist days by foreigners. In the Commune as a whole there were 753,000 tourists with 5,104,233 tourist days, of which 2,914,000 by foreigners. The number of Yugoslav and foreign tourists visiting the Dubrovnik Riviera has been growing from year to year.
The Olympic Flame lighted at Olympia was carried through Dubrovnik to Sarajevo for the opening of the XIV Winter Olympic Games.
Opening of the new hospital complex in Medarevo.
Death of Mirko Deanovic (born 1890), scholar of Romance languages, university professor, member of Academy and a man whose interests ranged wide in the field of history and culture.
Death of Bernard Stulli (born 1915), historian and director of the Croatian Archives. He wrote numerous papers and monographs, particularly in the field of Dubrovnik history.
Atlantska plovidba had 25 ships for transatlantic voyages and 5 ships circulating in the Adriatic.
Vinko Foretic (born 1901), historian of Dubrovnik and Korcula, died. Josip Torbarina, (born 1902), member of the Academy, university professor of English and Shakespeare scholar, died.
A large exhibition The Golden Age of Dubrovnik was organized in Zagreb and Dubrovnik.
The tourist-recreational centre +Sunny Dubrovnik Gardensč opened in Orasac. The second phase of construction of the Medarevo Medical Centre was begun. The 200th anniversary of the death of the great Ragusan Rugjer Josip Boskovic was celebrated at numerous international meetings in Zagreb, Vienna, Milan, Dubrovnik, Boston (USA) and Paris.
Milan Prelog (born 1919 in Osijek) died in Zagreb. He started a project of research of the immediate and broader Dubrovnik area, and was one of the founders of the Interuniversity Centre in Dubrovnik. It was largely thanks to his efforts that Dubrovnik was included in the register of the World Cultural heritage.
Branko Kovacevic (born 1911 in Omis), painter, died.
The construction of the bridge across Rijeka Dubrovacka was begun. A water supply system for the Elaphite islands, Mljet and Lokrum was built. Marin Drzic memorial museum opened.
A monument to Frano Supilo erected in Cavtat.
The Gruz market rebuilt and refurbished.
Festive celebrations of the 400th anniversary of the poet Ivan Gundulic in Osijek, Zagreb and Dubrovnik.
Hrvoje Kacic, Ivan Mustac, Matko Medo and Ivo Jelic elected as Dubrovnik members of the Croatian Diet (Parliament) in the first free democratic elections after the Second World War.
The Assembly renamed the Socialist Republic of Croatia into the Republic of Croatia.
The Dubrovnik Municipality signed a contract with Mr. Camille Rayon, owner of the largest world chain of marinas, for a marina to be built in Gruz.
The Dubrovnik Municipality signed a contract with Zagreb University for the joint investment and use of part of the renovated complex of the Franciscan Monastery in Rozat (Rijeka Dubrovacka) for the next fifty years. A similar contract was signed in respect of the Benedictine Monastery on the island of Lokrum.
A referendum was held in the Republic of Croatia. 93,24% of the voters voted for a free and sovereign Croatian state, with 4,15% voting against it. In the Dubrovnik Municipality 94% of the voters voted for and 6% against a free and sovereign Croatian state.
The 1991 census in the Dubrovnik Municipality, which numbers a total of 70,602 inhabitants, showed the following results:
58,300 or 82.5% Croats
4,735 or 6.7% Serbs
2,900 or 4.1% Moslems
0.3% Slovenes and Albanians
0.1% Macedonians, Italians and Hungarians
On October 1 began the barbaric attack of the Yugoslav and Serbian army on Dubrovnik, causing severe destruction and death of civilians. The city has been without electricity and running water for more than a month.
The Convoy +Libertasč finally reached Dubrovnik on October 31. Along with Dubrovnik citizens returning to their city, participating in the convoy were members of the Diet and Government of the Republic of Croatia and notable actors, artists, writers along with a great number of other citizens who lent their support to the convoy.
November 5. The siege of Dubrovnik continues. Shells have hit targets inside the old city walls, all important major hotel buildings burnt, port facilities in Gruz destroyed, the Cilipi airport devastated. The hardest days in the entire history of Dubrovnik.
UNESCO sends its first mission to inspect the damage of the monuments. The UNESCO standard hoisted in Dubrovnik to protect the city against destruction.
December 5. By a heroic effort the fighters from Dubrovnik held fort Srdj above the city, thus preventing the enemy to enter Dubrovnik.
December 6. Enemy artillery systematically destroyed the old city and its suburbs. The Inter-university Centre for Post-graduate Studies, the administrative building of the Dubrovnik Summer Festival with complete festival files, and a number of public buildings and monuments in the city walls were burned. Shells hit the Francistan and Dominican monasteries, churches, the city archives, hotels, power lines, ships in pirt, various buildings and public monuments.
January 15. The European Community recognized the Republic of Croatia.
February 12. Croatian Army freed Slano in the western part of the Dubrovnik Municipality.
May 22. Croatia is accepted in the UN as the 178th member state.
May 26-27. Croatian Army freed Mokosica and Zupa Dubrovacka.
May 31. Heavy artillery attack on the city.
August 2. The second Croatian multiparty parliamentary elections held and the first direct vote elections for president of Republic. In the Dubrovnik Municipality, the HDZ candidate Sime Djodan gained most votes.
September 20-24. Croatian Army freed Cavtat and Konavle.
September 30. Yugoslav Army withdrew from Prevlaka, the southeastern end of the Dubrovnik Municipality and Croatia.
When the whole of Dubrovnik territory had been freed, the barbaric and irrational nature of the aggression was revealed; whole villages burnt, graves desecrated and robbed, houses plundered, cars and yachts, art treasures, church vestments etc. stolen.
December 29. The law on local administration passed in the Croatian Diet. Dubrovnik to be the seat of the Dubrovnik-Neretvan county.
February. Elections for the Upper House of the Croatian Parliament.
April 19-25. The International P. E. N. Congress in Dubrovnik to mark the anniversary of the 1933 congress.